Jorge Ben is an absolute boss and A Tábua de Esmeralda is one of my absolute favourite albums of all time. It’s pretty amazing following his trajectory from his early samba albums and up through Tropicália to the weird esoteric psychedelia of A Tábua and the funk-rock of África Brasil.
Another one I’d highly recommend is Acabou Chorare by Novos Baianos. It was rated the #1 Brazilian album of all time by Rolling Stone and it pretty much encompasses everything that I love about 60/70s Brazilian music - incredible energy, catchy hooks, colourful melodies and some beautiful guitar playing:
If you like spacey dramatic prog, Som Imaginário could be a good option.
One of the founding members of Som Imaginário (Milton Nascimento) also has a great solo career and founded a collective of musicians from the state of Minas Gerais called Clube da Esquina. They released a compilation album in 1972 which covers a ton of different styles from rock and roll to bossa nova, this being a highlight:
For all your post-punk needs, check out Legião Urbana:
And finally, for some brilliant modern day psychedelic rock:
I lived in Brazil for six months and wrote my undergrad dissertation on Tropicalia so could talk about this kind of thing for days. Looks like a lot of the good stuff’s already been covered though!